Research on optimization in multi-agent systems (MASs) has contributed with a wealth of techniques to solve many of the challenges arising in a wide range of multi-agent application domains. Multi-agent optimization focuses on casting MAS problems into optimization problems. The solving of those problems could possibly involve the active participation of the agents in a MAS. Research on multi-agent optimization has rapidly become a very technical, specialized field. Moreover, the contributions to the field in the literature are largely scattered. These two factors dramatically hinder access to a basic, general view of the foundations of the field. This tutorial is intended to ease such access by providing a gentle introduction to fundamental concepts and techniques on multi-agent optimization.